Creating a Test

Through a series of steps, a test performs actions to get the browser into a required state and evaluates assertions to verify that the state is as expected.

We will be creating a YAML file to define our test. In fact, all basil code is stored in YAML files.

Note

You will benefit from an editor (a text editor or IDE) that understands YAML (.yml) files. Your favourite editor probably already does so, but go and check if you’re not sure. Whitespace is significant and tabs are bad. Use an editor that knows how to handle YAML.

Understanding the Test

We then have two steps (verify Google is open and query 'example') to handle carrying out actions and evaluating the browser state.

Configuring the Test

You can’t test a web page without first opening a browser and visiting a URL. Every test starts with a config section declaring the browser to use and the url to start at.

config:
  browser: chrome
  url: https://www.google.com

Test Steps

Remember from the terminology overview that a step verifies one precise piece of functionality and a test combines a series of steps to represent a full user journey.

Our test contains two steps, each having a name that we’ve chosen:

  • verify Google is open
  • query 'example'

The name can be whatever you chose. There is no right answer, but it is good practice to name a test after what an end user would be looking to achieve. Phrasing the name of a step as an action to be undertaken works well.

Verifying the Opened Page

The first step within a test can be whatever you choose. In practice, verifying that the correct page has been opened is generally a good idea.

"verify Google is open":
  assertions:
    - $page.url is "https://www.google.com"
    - $page.title is "Google"

Firstly we name the step (verify Google is open). This name is not part of the step itself, it is here to give meaning to the step within the context of the test.

The step itself comprises the assertions that follow the name:

# examples/step/google-assert-open-literal.yml
assertions:
  - $page.url is "https://www.google.com"
  - $page.title is "Google"

The assertions section covers the factors that we need to examine to be sure that the browser is in the state that we expect. A test step must include assertions. If a test step is not checking that things are correct, the test step isn’t really doing any meaningful testing.

In this case there are two assertions: one to verify the page URL and one to verify the content of the page <title> element.

?What

The above assertions refer to $page.url and $page.title. These are built-in parameters referencing page properties.

Querying For the Word “example”

We want to enter the word “example” (without the quotes) into the Google search field and to submit the search form.

"query 'example'":
  actions:
    - set $".gLFyf.gsfi" to "example"
    - click $".FPdoLc.VlcLAe input[name=btnK]"

  assertions:
    - $page.title is "example - Google Search"

This step has an actions section. This lists the steps needed: setting the input field to the required value and clicking the form submission button. Actions are optional but necessary if you want to interact with the browser in any way.

The input field and submit button are identified here with CSS selectors. Page elements can also be identified with XPath and, more robustly, with page model element references. The tutorial on page models goes into more depth.

The assertions section lists one assertion to verify that the page <title> is as expected. We could also verify that page.url is correct but in this case the page title suffices. The fewer assertions needed to verify the browser state the faster your tests will complete.